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Surgeons' Certificates

The Early Indicators project created the following three data sets:

The disease data set is collected from the surgeons’ certificates found in the veterans' pension (PEN) files. In addition to providing identifying demographic and military service information, each certificate contains:

Examining surgeons were charged with a set of detailed instructions which provided a measure of uniformity to the certificates. Substantial variation in the content of exams exists due to changes in examination procedures over time and idiosyncratic methodologies of examining surgeons. Content of an individual certificate was determined by: